Month: August 2016


According to the Video theory, which is written by Andreas Treske, media technologies require us to navigate through the world of meaning, into images that make our memories. These timeless or time thickened images change the atmosphere, take us to the ground zero feeling. “We are immersing in video atmospheres”, says Treske. Videos as forms of realness give us a new space under the different light in time. Inevitably, video becomes atmospheric. Collectively produced sphere consist of many space that mirrors the subjectivity of the user and determines the user’s interaction with society. Video spreads meaningful acts around the network, inhabited spaces, and environments. According to Treske, our imagination helps us to avoid to become dizzy and create a whole video out of the fragmented clips. Therefore, our imagination will determine our future more than ever in the history.

The beauty of video, says Treske comes from the uncontrolled and unstructured nature of it; it does not underlie a system of narrative dictatorship.

Digital Compassion with online video


Multimedia is not solely for human eyes. Undetachable loss for human eye might be detect by machines easily and might cause a salient error.



Overall, camera movements and positions effect the contemporary people’s impression of speed.

Our relationship with technology is constantly evolving. Perhaps, the human enhancements will be the common culture in next decade. While the earliest cameras were room-sized, at the place we have arrived, quite rare and expensive implantation does not only give the blind people ability to see but also creates a supervision by enhancing the visual capacity. Although these prosthetic eyes are so much like belonging the science fiction novels, they are practically possible and also can be considered as a winning of a man via its creation of artefacts. Of course, they are still an appendage of older technologies but very different at the same time. Just like the Renaissance and Postmodernism. Camera Obscura as a first device, which uses a pinhole to project an image of the scene outside upside-down onto a viewing surface, possibly dating back to the ancient times. However, the first known product The ‘Kodak’ camera was developed by George Eastman and it sold in 1888. It was simple box camera with a single shutter speed and fixed focus lens. The first commercial DSLR (digital single lens reflex) was also launched by Kodak, after about hundred years later, in 1991.

Ernst writes: “With the emergence of photography, the idea of the theatrical gaze literally staging the past is displaced by the cold mechanical eye, a technologically neutral code rather than a subjective discourse.” Photography (writing with light) and film after capturing the actual events, animated the scene that usually belongs to the past. But, photography has been already absorbed by digital image technologies. It’s more than possible to achieve photorealistic visuals. The new images not only about the reproducing the existing reality but also about giving imaginative meaning the concepts. The risky situation of creating meaningless concepts always challenge the new way of image making.


“Narrative is first and foremost a prodigious variety of genres, themselves distributed amongst different substances – as though any material were fit to receive man’s stories…” Roland Barthes, 1966

There are thousand of ways to narrate the same story.  With an example, man landed on the moon is the story. The story, which engages the imagination, demands more of both writer and reader.

The paragraph below belongs to E.B. White. This is how he depicts the moon landing that is a milestone in human history. It is an artful way of writing. The sentences writing to evoke in oneself a feeling one has once experienced. Even in the field of journalism, art gives shape to the presentation of reality.

The moon, it turns out, is a great place for men. One-sixth gravity must be a lot of fun, and when Armstrong and Aldrin went into their bouncy little dance, like two happy children, it was a moment not only of triumph but of gaiety. The moon, on the other hand, is a poor place for flags. Ours looked stiff and awkward, trying to float on the breeze that does not blow. (There must be a lesson here somewhere.) It is traditional, of course, for explorers to plant the flag, but it struck us, as we watched with awe and admiration and pride, that our two fellows were universal men, not national men, and should have been equipped accordingly. Like every great river and every great sea, the moon belongs to none and belongs to all. It still holds the key to madness, still controls the tides that lap on shores everywhere, still guards the lovers who kiss in every land under no banner but the sky. What a pity that in our moment of triumph we did not forswear the familiar Iwo Jima scene and plant instead a device acceptable to all: a limp white handkerchief, perhaps, symbol of the common cold, which, like the moon, affects us all, unites us all. by E. B. White 1969

Perhaps, mostly, this artful part what makes us keep reading, what brings the material together, by creating a taste much like the melody in a musical piece it gives space to the emotional reception, lets us savour.

As a personal favour what I like as a  portray of art comes from Tolstoy. He tell us about art;

“The activity of art rely on transmitting the feeling by means of movements, lines colors, sound, or form expressed in words. Thus creating the same sort of experience into another body.  To him, the capacity of man to receive another man’s expression of feeling and experience those feelings himself, based on the  activity of art.”

By this definition, can we say that networking online itself a significant art that extend the capacity of man? Does art necessarily involve a finite object? Is it necessary for the concept of the aesthetic to assume representation?

Very much like the other ages, the way the agency of art puts itself is determined by the science. For example, the science of the chemistry. The paint is possible by the combination of the chemical substance. Just as the contemporary materials of the media. Yet still, It could be a fault to reduce the knowledge to the material addition. They are inevitably united but still independent.

Indeed, Polymaths like Leonardo da Vinci who sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495 also might be seen as a visionary inventor of contemporary products. Artistic and scientific sides both stimulates each other continuously.

Transferring the knowledge, idea, emotion or value are an unfaltering aim for art, as well as for narration. On the other hand, science takes these explorations into another level and make them possible and accessible on extended time zones. So they both build the  what we called media communication together. For instance, it is believed that Leonardo demonstrated his “mechanical knight” in 1495 in Milano. But there is no certainty. Even there are some recorded material it is hard to be certain with the history, but obviously, it is much harder if there are no evidence. Book pages of the drawing significantly valuable in terms of longevity of the narrative. To illustrate with another case, the reason of the oil painting is also to preserve longer. The art or narrative does not exist (only) for the artist or author it also exists for the spectators or readers.  Gutenberg’s invention revolutionised the distribution of knowledge by making it possible to produce many accurate copies of a single work. Longevity is important as much as the copying and reaching the contemporary receivers.  Longevity is one of the significant factors for the every type of art as a communicational way which always need a receiver (active participant) at the end. Basically, the longer it is preserved, the longer it is alive and accessible from the far far away realities.

So far in history, a narrative has been ruling the archival data. Manovich claimed that the logic of the database replaces that of the narrative in digital media. Supposedly, even there are big changes in our gestures and behaviours, rather they are interconnected and seminal for each other and the new hybrid forms.

On the other hand, from the writing to the documentaries every medium is influenced by computer – telematics technologies. There is a suspicion of the traditional structure of the narrative, which has to have a beginning, middle and, end by proposed by Aristo over 2000 years ago.

Narrating the technology:


Narratology – Narrative Theory: There is many well-known narratologists wrote about the narratives such as Aristo, Todorov, Propp, Levi Strauss, Campbell and Vogner. What I will specifically mention about Narrative Theory will be based by more contemporary cultural theorist and professor of the Mieke Bal who takes the narrative as a cultural phenomenon in her book.

According to Bal, narrative text is not identical to the story, rather narrative text is a text that agency tells the story in a particular medium. Acting like place medium immerses the agency. Ball propose three layers;text, story and Fabula to study narrative text. Only the text layer embody the language as a world of the sign, whether it is visual, audial or lexical. Fabula as a material or a content work into a story, coherent series of events that experienced by actors. A story is a Fabula that is presented in a certain manner. The Same story can be noticeable various versions and forms.

Another point worth stressing is that something with the Fabula is not exclusively language related. Events, actors, time and location together constitute the material of a Fabula. These elements are organised in a way into the story. Their arrangements create effects that shouldn’t be confused with the author’s activity. In addition to the necessary relationship among actors, time, location and time other relationships may exist among the various elements. A voice is made from variously presented elements. This ends with focalisation “colours the story by subjectivity.” In this way, each story distance from each other.

On the other hand, as presentation into a medium; text is a conversion of the story into a sign system by an agent who relates the signs. Reader recognised the text at first glance rather than the Fabula. The agent of the text is known as a narrator. Who is doing the narrating does matters? Narrative agent or a narrator as the linguistic subject, a function and not a person, which express itself in the language that constitutes text. This agent is not the author of the narrative, which puts the authority of authorship in a difficulty.

In spite of its challenging and persuasive logic, we must place the authority of authorship within this dynamic.



Navigation is the calculation of position and direction.

The fundamental aim and working principal of the computer are much about navigation than usually missing. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were designed for astronomical and navigational use.


Perception which is constitute from all former experiences, skills, concepts, misconceptions, thoughts and generalisations. The perceptual field, which is the established model of objective reality, of the real world around the subject. It is where the subject finds the background for perception.


I will mention about the spatiality in twofold. One is related with spatiality of digital environments, which are virtual environments without physical qualities, the second is digitalised physical environments; environments that physically exist and digitalised into virtual by enabling technologies.

People have tendency to pick the closer one and count the other one as a  object or subject is becoming irrelevant. The law of proximity says that what is close is more important, true, or concrete than what is far away, smaller, and more difficult to access.  By the combination of presentation technologies and real time communication the proximity has challenged. As vicarial presence came to the scene, what is important is determined by their value rather than distance.

“During mechanical ages we had extended our bodies in space. Today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned.”(McLuhan)

Along the past decades, many people have been working on new space. The collaboratively constructed slice of the space now allow us to move, play, perform inside it.

As Lefebvre claim, “Space is socially produced and serves as a tool of thought and of action , as a means of production, control, domination and power.” By transcending the barrier of space and time, contemporary networks change the space-time bound power relations. Many digital media environments act like public spaces. These new spaces can be taken as a training ground for individuals to express themselves within the digital circuits while space can use storing the given data and turning them into statistical knowledge.

In terms of archive, people will not deal with lost papers no more, rather than send it to me directly, don’t forget the duplicate your data, you can always copy and paste, just give the right key terms to allow a machine to process.

Represented physical space

For the first time, space becomes media type. (Manovich, 2001)

Much like the other types of media such as text, audio, video and stills space has become media type by contemporary developments.While  linear media such as books and films can depict space,only digital environments can present space that we can move through.

Being able to navigate into the digital space give a dramatic engagement for the users.

The Database Logic

By the advent of camera and computing, historical data; which is in symbolic order by alphabetic symbols enhances its quality with  photography; which belongs to physical real. These epistemological enhancements changed the way of perception as well requirements of organisation, categorization and access of the data.

The database is a structured data for managing, processing and accessing. The ultimate goal of the database is having an organised information and retaining the comprehensiveness of recording result of the specified data. All of the media objects inherently interface of the database while some of them comprise structural  construction of the database logic.

“Perhaps, “Man with a Movie Camera” is an example of a database imagination in modern media art. Man with a Movie Camera is not only a database of the city in the 1920s according to Manovich, “a database of film techniques, and a database of new operations of visual epistemology, but also a database of new interface operations that together aim to go beyond simple human navigation through physical space.” (Manovich, 2001)

But the main database is a word comes with computers. By their talent in the calculation, computers are intrinsically available for various database operations.

The computer age brought with it a new cultural algorithm: reality->media->data->database. (Monavich, 2001)

The database supports both the pure database form and the narration. One of the  arguments of Manovich claims that the logic of the database replaces that of the narrative in digital media.

Much like Maravich Ernst also affirm the similar ideas that dominant model for organising information and structural tradition of Aristotle has begun to destroy with new media. By emphasising the centrality of temporality, there might be a change for the long term read only memory ROM with RAM random access memories. The archive is much more dynamic, transformative and productive in terms of history just like the organic memory, not in rest in the fixed position, always shifts with other factors. According to Ernst, there is a shift through micro-temporal approach refers to archives in motion. This transformation is not much about the human activity rather it is much about technological amelioration.

Once things are being digitalised, you can analyse every bit and this allows to investigate and navigate in them.

Data mining as a result of big data on the digital environments


Locus of copying.

“The math is simple: one byte = one typed alphabetic character. One page of text contains about 2.000characters, so one million bytes, aka one megabyte (MB) would hold about 500 pages of text data. Most books are much less than 500 pages. … If the average length of a book is 350 pages,then the whole of the Library of the Congress would fit in less space. If the average length of a book is 250 pages, it would fit on an 18 TB drive with little room to spare.”

Gutenberg Project founded in 1971 is the oldest online library.




Lev Manovich lists the variability principles in his book called “The Language of New Media”. According to his findings;

Media presents in database. Database acts and functions like the cultural form of the new age.  The database are mostly open for the users to generate or edit by means of content or form. This new level of relationship with the data, effects the users’ understanding of the data itself.

Another attribution related with the variability is new media’s possibly of varying the same data with various interface.

Game Feel

“To many designers, game feel is about intuitive control.”

“Even without a specific goal in mind, there is this intrinsic pleasure to control.”

Usually, the interaction of the objects you see on the screen on television and films is passively perceived. Leaning back and having a cognitive interaction is what experienced rather than leaning forward and have real-time control. However, by computers, interactive storytelling allow users to live active perception that gives an opportunity for exploring a simulated space using real-time control. Many new technologies enable documentary makers to create a game feel in their documentaries.

One of the oldest examples of interactive documentaries Aspen Movie Map by Andrew Lippman produced in 1978 under the Arpa sponsorship has this game feel.

By enabling the user to take a virtual tour through the city of Aspen, Colorado (that is, a form of surrogate travel). It is an early example of a hypermedia system and its game feel.

Today many projects were produced by 3d cam, or projects were enriched by Google technologies such as Project Night Walk gave us the clues about game feel in the new forms of documentaries. Participants gain an experience of flaneur in the digital environment. Having a touristic tour by having the sensation of control, learning the gestures of the movements on the screen and syringe them with your own perception makes the documentary more appealing and engaging.

Game feel is also supported by little achievements in the new interactive documentaries. For example; checkpoints in the Project Night Walk are designed to increase the attention and excitement in the participation.

Steve Swink mention about the five most common experiences of game feel in his book called Game Feel. (2009) These are;

  • The aesthetic sensation of control
  • The pleasure of learning, practising and mastering a skill
  • Extension of the senses
  • Extension of Identity
  • Interaction with a unique physical reality within the game

What we can see is that these experiences of game feel does not limited itself by video games. Many platforms and forms of the storytelling including interactive documentaries have these qualities.