Day: August 2, 2016


Documentary as a word comes from Latin docere means to teach. The documentary’s position in history has varied depending on the period and the prevailing technologies as well as the contemporary needs and social contexts. Overall, a documentary is an attempt to put forward an evidence or the testimony of a fact or situation, within the complex historical process. It is a mimetic representation of real events.

The visual documentaries have become possible by image technologies. With the advent of the camera, photograph adds an intensification to the documentary and documentary making change its methods. John Berger noted tree decade ago, the camera altered our relation to the world by their capacity of preserving the instant appearances and their possibility to break any monopoly that is represented. Photography intervenes the daily life with a number of levels, it came with its technical, material and conceptual differentiations that can not be underestimated. A video, whose value is polyvalent by its future of capturing the movements, has become to the stage as qualified documents.

By years and examples, audiovisual documentaries divided to genres by their differentiated modes. Some of them did try to focus on objectivism while the others giving emphasis to the expression of the author. Some thought documentaries are portrayed of what it is, while the others have thought documentaries as a branch of art. As Aristotle observed and puts into sentences art represents not what is, but a kind of thing that might be; environments, objects, situations, characters, and actions are represented within a wide range of deviation from real life. The degree and types of deviations are the results of the form, style and purpose representation. In any way, while documentaries as a genre involve representations of real world phenomena more than any other art forms characteristically, they also remain as a presenter of framed reality traditionally demanded on the author’s point of view.

“the tiny spark of contingency, of Here and Now, with which reality has seared the subject” (Berger, 1979)


Film is an expository medium which has a narrative mode based on the power of showing.

After quite a few examples, and years with the image technologies, discussions around the objectivity of the image have taken their place. Basically, these arguments ground on that even if you photograph the very natural life, as you are included and framed the situation, you are creating an interpretation of it by your juxtaposition of details.

Today, attributions of the documentary and the skills of the documentary makers are changing rapidly in high speed developing digital environments. Spectator turns into a user. Documentaries are taking new forms by software designers who design the new modes for users. Users are taking the proactive role more than ever in the history of documentaries. Besides, programs having the proactive role more than ever.

Keywords organisation and categorization of the systems, there are novel forms of aesthetic and the objectivity.

Interactive Documentary


Computers are representation machines that can emulate any known medium.”  Alan Kay

“Computers are the most capacious medium ever invented, promising infinite resources.” (Murray, 1997)

Computers are not only remediation of existing media such as typewriters and film, despite their interfaces (keyboards) and content (audio visuality) but also introduce new standards in data transfer, programming and storage. (Kittler, 1999:1-2)

The conceptual roots of computer technology date back to antiquity and point to the use of the abacus. Various forms of abacus used by the Chinese, the Babylonians, and the Egyptians, perhaps as long ago as 3000 B.C. In 1642, Blaise Pascal built a numeral calculating machine in Paris to help his tax collector father do his job more efficiently, but the machine was never put into widespread use. In 1833, Charles Babbage, a British professor of mathematics, came up with the idea of Analytic Engine but never seen the complete form. In 1910, the machine was build and now it’s exhibiting in London.  Like modern computers, the Analytical Engine has a processor, a memory and a way to input information and output results. In 1890, another punch card machine was designed for the United States Cencus Bureau by Herman Hollerith and James Powers who later found the IBM in 1924. Based on the necessities of the World War II, the first of the new wave of the computer was built and named as Colossus by Alan M. Turing in 1943.

The majority of historians, however, believe the peak should be counted as ENIAC ( Electronic Numeric Integrator and Computer) in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania.“   (pg17, Carolyn Handler Miller) which is also could as a beginning of the information age. The ENIAC could perform calculations about 1000 times faster than the previous generation of computers. It could do 360 multiplication per second and 5.000 additions.

By the 1970s, microchips enhanced the capacity of computer usage. Intel introduced its first 4-bit microprocessor 4004 in 1971 and its 8-bit microprocessor 8008 in 1972. Intel introduced its first 4-bit microprocessor 4004 in 1971 and its 8-bit microprocessor 8008 in 1972.

Computers retain a vast area into their user’s lives by somehow oxymoronic way. It explicitly promotes an individualism but at the same time, it is extremely collaborative. It acts like a priorly private tool by its instant click reaches the miles away and interact with the quite a few people simultaneously.

“In psychological terms, computers are liminal objects, located on the threshold between external reality and our own mind.” (Murray, 1997)

The computer presentation would grand pleasures that are not possible to gain in the older ways of mass communication tools. This is mainly delivered from its participatory nature of the designed environments which are explicitly spatial at the same time. Laws of the spatial had been become the most visible and significant change by the means of the proximity of actual and virtual bodies with the emerging of telematic – combination of telecommunication and informatics. Under the changing circumstances of materials, habits, industries had evolved.

Participants explore and change the technology by extending, distorting, playing. They continuously bring it into new dimensions of an expressive medium.

A number of undocumented, unrepresented, unnoticed lives comes to an appearance with the advent of computers and its facilitation of connectivity. Their participation and membership became important just because giving them ability to tell their story, even if they are not erudite in the field of representation, simply people have become on screen, heard and seen. In addition, to being seen by multiple agencies at the same time, of course, this participation is what making the new space richer. What is more excited is that the computer itself documenting the intentions, words, photographs that are given by people all around the world. This is an experimental method that never been experienced before. Such bevvy subjects in such long run… many findings that never have found before… that being so, lead us to live in the technological narration that makes us wonder what will happen next.

  • Computer As Tool –  Computer is a tool for navigation, tool to generate sensations and information. Computer as a tool, as a machine can both record  and shape; give direction to people and consequently determine what is happening. Doug Englebart deems the computer as a tool.
  • Computer As Media – Alan Kay mention in his writing “User Interface: A personal View” after he read McLuhan’s Understanding Media (1964) the concept of ” the medium is the message” made him clarify with his belief the computer will reshape the entire civilization so much like the printing press.
  • Computer As Life – Evolving over time, getting better and adapting. They are operative.
  • Computer As Vehicle – By enabling the calculate and sort out the information in a  very short time, computers create a time collapse. Combineing with the techhnics of networking, just like the very fast trains carrying the passengers and objects to distant places, computers also contain and travel the bodies of informations; whether they are representations, essence, tastes, flavours, faces of the subjects or objects. Computer can be portray as a time travel machine that can travel multi directionally.
  • Computer As Fashion – techno culture and its aesthetically flavor
  • Computer As Language – Digital is the language indeed. Language aims to clear communication between agencies. “Language is, as it were, that which divides reality” Roland Barthes
  • Computer As Intelligence – Smart and autonomous +2001: A Space Odyssey
  • Computers as a extension of the Body or physical prothesis

The computers as media artifact not only carries cultural meanings like images, gestures,  music and so on but is at the same time an archive of cultural engineering by its very material fabrication.


Interactivity to mean the ability of humans to participate in actions in a representational context.

“The prefix “inter” means “between”, telling us that we are talking about an active relationship between the user and the content.  It’s two-way exchange. You do something, the content reaches to what you’ve done. or the content demands something from you, and you respond in some way.” Carolyn Handler Miller

“Interactivity exists on a continuum that could be characterised by three variables: frequency ( how often you could interact), range (how many choices were available), and significance (how much the choices really affected matters)” Laurel

The interactivity is not the sole ability to click in the digital environments. Each click gives its user to another sequence and each click end up with another destination. When the user faces with multiple possibilities, it’s the point that user performs its agency with an autonomous action. By this way, it is also possible to say that interactivity is a practice of becoming the agency. When the interactivity takes its place, it also means there are agencies in the actions. But, of course, there are levels of agency participation. For example, the easiest way to differentiate the level of agency participation considering games, thinking about the how chest based on low action but a high level of agency. The new environments of the digital, especially web base environments, involve the active process of navigation.

According to Roberto Simonovski “interactivity aims at motivating the recipient to co construct the work.”

“This encompasses several possibilities: (1) reaching the characteristic of the work (programmed interactivity: human-software), which includes first of all (but certainly not exclusively or primarily)  multilinearity in hypertexts requiring readers to make navigational decisions on their own; and (2) reaching to activities of other recipients (network bound interactivity human human via software), which includes cooperative writing projects asking all readers entering a Website to become authors of a given project. ” (Digital art and meaning, pg31)