Day: August 17, 2016


Murray asserts that the storage capacities of computers and the ability to create multiple relations between units of data can be utilised to include specific information on a topic, along with multiple perspectives:

“The capacity to represent enormous quantities of information in digital form translates into an artist’s potential to offer a wealth of detail, to represent the world with both scope and particularity…It offers writers the opportunity to tell stories from multiple vantage points and to offer intersecting stories that form a dense wide-spreading web.” (1998, p.84)


Miles explains that:

Granularity is a term common to the hypertext literature… and refers to the scale of the units used within a larger system. For example, the Web can be considered highly granular (in general) because it is made up of many millions of individual parts, each of which appears well suited to being interconnected in quite unstructured (non hierarchical and multilinear) ways. (2005)

In an analysis of granularity, Brooks points out the multifunctional nature of video in this type of multilinear structuration:

For metalinear story, granularity has to do with the representation of meaning for each story piece. Given the
fluid and flexible nature of digital media, the meaning of a granule is based not on physical limitations, but more on how (or how many ways) the granule can be used to tell a part of a story. When a writer writes a metalinear story granule, what that writer is creating is a multifunctional cog that can be positioned in many different places within the linear story. The writer must, therefore, be aware of the issues connected with the creation of each granule—economy of size vs. precision in use. A balance or compromise must be struck, keeping in mind the complexity required to communicate the story at hand. (1999, p.50)


Manovich (2001) uses the term ‘modularity’ to define this affordance of new media.

According to Manovich’s findings modularity refers to the notion of digital media content being made up of independent parts that can be divided into small pieces, which may remain separate.

As we know that Quantization as a process of converting a continuous range of values into a finite range of discreet values, discrete nature of the environment just like the its distributive language make the representations also discrete. The series that will be seen as an end products have multiple attitudes.

similarity theory

Modes of Interactive Documentary

Specification of the attributions are necessary for the users to understand what they are trying to accomplish.

According to Gaudenzi (2013) there are new modes for this new artistic genre. These are;

  • Hypertext mode
  • Conversational mode
  • Participatory mode
  • Experiential mode

Interactive Documentary

With little notice, computer and web technologies just told us a lot about our contemporary world and its transformations. The developments have an impact on each level of human lives. Of course, As a way of narrational genre, the documentary is also affected by this revolutionary exploration.

By reflecting the logical connectives new form has the attributions of digital language, in other words its bases rely on the digital’s discreet nature. Remanding the basic syllogism with a well know example of “All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Therefore Socrates is mortal” – it could also applied for the digital and the documentary relationship. Basically; quintessence of digital is discrete, interactive documentary is digital, Therefore quintessence of digital is discrete. It consist of small bricks that can be combine with each other  variously.

In the linear documentary making, shots are recorded then combined together on a timeline on a linear scheme. The exported documentary is one video file made up of quite a few shots. In other words, it is fixed. In contrast, interactive documentaries are designed to present video in separate files and its users can decide which elements to display in which order or have a random access. In a way user can participate the co- creation of the work as the co-author.

There are many scholars who did their research on the field of interactive documentary. One of them; Whitelaw (2002) observes that—due to the expansion of bandwidth, the development of online video and the increasing emergence of interactive documentary forms—the formation of relations between shots is altered in a multilinear structure:

“New media forms pose a fundamental challenge to the principle of narrative coherence, which is at the core of traditional documentary. If we explode and open the structure, how can we be sure that the story is being conveyed?” (Whitewall, 2002)

Gaudenzi (2013) draws attention to the evolving nature of this form of documentary within a field that is also continually changing. Gaudenzi states:

“If documentary is a fuzzy concept, digital interactive documentary is a concept yet to be clearly defined. What is implicit in its terminology is that an interactive documentary needs to use a digital support, and be interactive. A linear documentary that has been shot with digital technology, and that is distributed on the Web, is a digital documentary but not an interactive one.” (Gaudenzi,2013)


3d render eyeballsNash (2012) states that:

As new media technologies and new forms of communication emerge, contemporary documentary makers are engaging in a process of actively re-thinking the documentary project. They are imagining what documentary might become: non-linear, multi-media, interactive, hybrid, cross-platform, convergent, virtual, or something else as yet un-thought. Within this experimental space the webdoc has become an established mode of documentary production. (2012, p.197)

O’Flynn (2012), similar to Nash (2012) and Gaudenzi (2013), evaluates the emergence of different forms of interactive documentary across multiple digital platforms and connects this development with a transformation towards incorporating design into documentary practice. O’Flynn proposes that:

…notions of interactivity have changed over the past decade… [due to],a shift away from a binaristic ‘choose your own adventure’ orientation towards plot as an either/or structure and narrative causality to an exploration of experiential interface design. Here, i-docs of the last five years have demonstrated an increasing attention to interface and user experience design as dynamic structural elements expressive of a thematic core to the given narrative. (O’Flynn, 2012)

Game feel constitutes the new genre of documentary.

All interactive documentaries have the feel of game.

Even there is a novel genre of doc – games, which consist of the social events, mostly critical ones and the digital simulation of it. by allowing the users to participate in a scenario, the designers aim to give values and the strategic actions to their users as well as anticipate their reactions and get a data out of them. According to Dr Tim Lenoir, educators in the conflict resolution has recognised the role model simulation with the game playing. These lead major organisations like the Un and various similar organisations routinely use very sophisticated role-playing games in their classes. Learning by doing bridges the gap between the conflict resolution theory and its practical resolution in the world of crisis that requiring complex strategy, problem-solving and adapted thinking according to Dr Tim Lenoir.

Project J-Fest Doc


Interactive storytelling is the novel form of art. As Schneider (2011) proposes that documentary is in a state of flux due to the influence of ‘network conditions’ like all the forms of media. In Schneider’s argument, the objective is to reinvent documentary by responding to the ‘aesthetic potential of contemporary networked production’ (2011). Working from this argument, the objective in my research and my project is to explore possibilities outside of this acculturated approach towards linear documentary production. This demanded using the existed archive of the past 10 years and customised tools to produce an online interactive documentary.

According to Seth Keen who is a professor and the practitioner explores the ongoing requirement to respond to the development of new technologies and the redefinition of documentary practice due to the effect of those changes, paying attention to the affordances of granularity, remix, indexing and spatial montage; a better understanding of the affordances of video, computers and the network, documentary designers will be able to change their practice and improve the quality of documentaries published on the Internet.

My research method will be experimential