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© 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
JOAN M. SCHWARTZa and TERRY COOKb
aNational Archives of Canada/Queen’s University, 87 Cameron Avenue, Ottawa ON K1S 0W8, Canada (E-mail: GeoPhoto@sympatico.ca); bUniversity of Manitoba/Clio Consulting, 2138 Hubbard Crescent, Ottawa ON K1J 6L2, Canada (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
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Lean back versus lean forward
“Play is a core human value; even a core mammalian value.” Bing Gordon.
Dutch philosopher and historian Huizinga explores the relationship between games, play, and culture and he discusses the importance of the play element of culture and society. According to Huizinga play is primary to and a necessary condition of the generation of culture and it exists in every culture.
Again according to Huizinga “The five most common experiences of game feel are:
1- The aesthetic sensation of control “with the right relationships between input and response, controlling something in a game can archive a kind of lyric beauty.”
2- The pleasure of learning, practising and mastering a skill
3- Extension of the senses
4- Extension of identity
5- Interaction with a unique physical reality within the game”
When player is given well defined task that makes player experience the game as a narrative game creates an impression in the player’s mind.
Six basic type of interactivity can be found in the all interactive entertainments according to Miller.
1- Stimulus – response exchange: The user inputs a stimulus and the program produces a response. This stimulus can be something as simple as clicking on an image and seeing a little animated sequence or hearing a funny sound Or the user might click on a button and receive a few paragraphs of text information.
2- Navigation: The user can choose what to do in the extend of offering. this might be the vas 3D environment exploration or a menu offering for the several actions.
3- The user can control virtual objects. While it is widespread usage of interactivity it is not fund in all projects.
4- The user can communicate with other characters, including bots and other human players. It’s common but not obligatory.
5- The user can send information.
– 6- The user can receive or acquire things. The nature of the material can range from virtual to concrete, and the methods of acquiring it can range greatly as well.
Bill Nichols, who is an American film critic and theoretician best known for his pioneering work as founder of the contemporary study of documentary film, describes four main modes of representation in his writing called Representing Reality (1991) that then upgrades to six in his later book named Introduction to Documentary (2001).
- Expository mode: Expository mode is associated with a ‘factual’ documentation of reality. It can be argued that the expository mode arose from these inaccuracies that the poetic mode was susceptible in presenting, as well as the “distracting qualities” of fiction films. (Nichols, 1991) The mode’s goal is to educate people. Logical, chronological reality presentation came to the frontal place.
- Observational mode
- Participatory mode
- Poetic mode: Poetic mode depicts a transformation of historical material into a more abstract, lyrical form. The poetic mode was introduced into documentaries in the 1920’s.Camera angles, slow motion editing, sound effects are designed to amplify the dramatic affect on spectator. After all, the poetic mode doesn’t give an accurate representation to the audience. Subjectivity of the documentarian is on the front place. Leni Riefenstahl’s Olympia (1938) is a classic example of documentary with poetic mode. Chris Marker’s Sans Soleil (1982) is another well known example.
- Reflexive mode
- Performative mode
It is beyond doubt that computers stand by for human participation. Much like the window that helps to see the world. Who wants to see the metaphorically other worlds need to accept the looking thought the screen. (+Alice, +Matrix)
Human-computer interface comes to act as a new form through which all older forms of cultural production are being mediated. (Manovich)
When the telematics and virtual intelligence has met, the machine becomes a partner. The interactivity of materials has taken its place in our daily lives. In fact, human Computer interaction isn’t a field with 100 years of history. Yet, when the electronics started to take place of the mechanics our way of interaction with everything has changed.
“As computers begin to shape everyday life, we’re interested not only in what this technology can do for us, but also in what owning it means for us. When we buy something for our home, a toaster for instance, we choose it because it toast bread, certainly, but maybe also because how it looks, feels, sounds.”(Moggridge, 2007)
Human computer interaction is constrained not only by the computing problem but also includes media of representation. Human computer activity requires multisensory representation.
“Just as a person needs clothing, a computer needs a case to protect its insides and to allow us to enter and manipulate information in a convenient way (that is, a human-computer interface, typically a keyboard and a screen). Text needs to be displayed in ways suitable for us to be able to read it, be it on a screen, paper, or e- paper. Therefore, although the word “information” contains the world “form” inside it, in reality it is the other way around: in order to be useful to us, information always has to be wrapped up in some external form.” (Manovich, 2008)
Bill Verplank, who worked as a design consultant from 1986 to 1922 for bringing graphical user interfaces into the product design world, recapitulate interaction design by three questions about how you act, how you feel, and how you understand.
If we go though the some key concepts that delineate the interaction design, these are;
- Reassuring Feedback; by a well design system we are aware of what we have done when we have done it.
“The field of human computer interaction is really an amalgam of other fields, including computer science, sociology, psychology, communication, human factors engineering, industrial engineering, rehabilitation engineering, and many others.” (Johanattan Lazar, Research Methods)
Research methods in HCI are always changing and improving. Interaction researches have a broad scope from desktop computers to laptops, potable devices, smart phones, tangible and wearable computing, audio, touch and tactile computing. They are about what people can do with computers, how they perceive the environment, how they communicated and what kind of tools are becoming out of their interaction and needs.
Favourite Films about HCI Movies:
- The Matrix
- Artificial Intelligence
- Minority Report
- The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy