Transmission needs a protocol, which is the archival element at work in transfer: the essential archive. (Ernst)
TCP/IP Standards, 1974, government sponsored research.
- Vanevar Bush
- Ivan Sutherland
- Ted Nelson
- Tim Berners Lee
- Douglas Engelbart
- Bing Gordon
Theodor Holm “Ted” Nelson ( 1937) is an American pioneer of information technology, philosopher, and sociologist. He invented the terms hypertext and hypermedia around 1965.
* Theodor H. Nelson, “As We Will Think.” Proceedings of Online 72 Conference, Bruanel University, Uxbridge, England, 1972.
Ivan Sutherland who is is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer invented the digitization of images and designed goggles for wandering around within the images.
When asked, “How could you possibly have done the first interactive graphics program, the first non-procedural programming language, the first object oriented software system, all in one year?” Ivan replied: “Well, I didn’t know it was hard.”
Alan Kay (Speaker) (1987). Doing with Images Makes Symbols (Videotape). University Video Communications, Apple Computer. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
Vannevar Bush was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator. In 1940, he conceptualised a digital system called the “Memex” for storing large interconnected knowledge bases, which could be accessed from various and multiple levels as a form of memory augmentation involving a microfilm-based “device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.“Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). “As We May Think”. The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 20 April 2012. “As We May Think” has turned out to be a visionary and influential essay and influenced many contemporary technologies and it includes many significant ideas about the hypertext. “Associative linkage, argues Bush, replicates more accurately the way the mind works. The continuing appeal of hypertext as both information storage and creative methodology has been that it appears to offer a better model of consciousness than linear storage systems.” 20
The human operates by association. With one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in association with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain. (Bush in Mayer 1999:33)