Tag: computers as theatre

Games

“Game world is a simplified subdomain of the real world.” Steve Swink

Game industry developed as the result of the military contract spin off some of their products around the 1980s. Flight simulators design their technology for the arcade games, including game council PC games muds was growing with a pace.

For example, Silicon Valley made the major products the Nintendo export for the play station and the extremely successful Super Mario series came out of that.

Software! as Modern Art

software
Software as Modern Art

Traditionally, in art practice, the artists made a unique piece within a particular medium. There is no difference between the interface and the work that has done. In contemporary age, with the new media, there are new ways of collaborating while practising art. For instance, as a software, Pan.do/ra needs social context and an editor who enter the keywords to make the categorisation.

“Software” is the  code which runs on the hardware. If the hardware is a painter, then the software is the painting itself.

Avant Garde as Software (Manovich, 1999) – The thesis of the Lev Manovich asserts that the new ways of avant garde’s seeing and representing the world transmutes by the new media avant grade into new ways of accessing and manipulating information.

Pan.do/RA can depict as a wonderful avant-garde modern art by the same way that Lev Manovich mentioned about the greatest avant-garde film is our times is a software such as Final Cut Pro or After Effects in his writing “New Media from Borges to HTML”

Futurism –  Goal of the Futurism is discarding the art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in technologic society as a result of art and politics. In literature, As it were Futurists  create a new language free of syntax punctuation, and metrics that allowed for free expression by freeing the word and taking it as a main unit of the concern. Parole in liberta

Dada –

Books

  • Treske, Andreas. Video Theory : Online Video Aesthetics Or The Afterlife Of Video. n.p.: Bielefeld : Transcript Verlag, 2015., 2015.
  • Laurel, Brenda. Computers As Theatre. n.p.: Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1993., 1993.
  • Murray, Janet Horowitz. Hamlet On The Holodeck : The Future Of Narrative In Cyberspace. n.p.: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 1998., 1998.
  • Miller, Carolyn Handler. Digital Storytelling : A Creator’s Guide To Interactive Entertainment. n.p.: Amsterdam : Focal Press, c2004., 2004.
  • Swink, Steve. Game Feel : A Game Designer’s Guide To Virtual Sensation. n.p.: Amsterdam ; Boston : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers/Elsevier, c2009., 2009.
  • Moggridge, Bill. Designing Interactions. n.p.: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, c2007., 2007.
  • Nichols, Bill. Representing Reality : Issues And Concepts In Documentary. n.p.: Bloomington : India University Press , 1991., 1991.
  • Manovich, Lev. The Language Of New Media. n.p.: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2001., 2001.

  • Cubitt, Sean, Daniel Palmer, and Nathaniel Tkacz. Digital Light. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Openhumanitiespress. 2015. Web.

  • Ernst, Wolfgang, and Jussi Parikka. Digital Memory And The Archive. n.p.: Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c2013., 2013.
  • Parikka, Jussi. What Is Media Archaeology?. n.p.: Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA : Polity Press, 2012., 2012. BILKENT UNIVERSITY’s Catalog. Web. 9 Nov. 2016.
  • Blom, Ina. Memory in Motion. Archives, Technology and the Social. Ed. Trund Lundemo and Eivind Rossaak. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 2016. Print.
  • Saunders, Dave. Routledge Film Gıidebooks: Documentary. Routledge, 2010.
  • Simanowski, Roberto. Digital Art And Meaning : Reading Kinetic Poetry, Text Machines, Mapping Art, And Interactive Installations. n.p.: Minneapolis, MN : University of Minnesota Press, 2011., 2011. BILKENT UNIVERSITY’s Catalog. Web. 4 Jan. 2017.
  • Campanelli, Vito. Web Aesthetics: How Digital Meida Affect Culture and Society. Rotterdam, NAi Publishers, 2010.
  • L. Manovich, Software Takes Command (version: 20 November 2008), 175. Web: hettp://softwarestudies.com/softbook/manovich_softbook_II_20_2008.doc.
  • Lister, Martin. New Media : A Critical Introduction. n.p.: London ; New York : Routledge, 2007., 2007.

Interactive Documentary

With little notice, computer and web technologies just told us a lot about our contemporary world and its transformations. The developments have an impact on each level of human lives. Of course, As a way of narrational genre, the documentary is also affected by this revolutionary exploration.

By reflecting the logical connectives new form has the attributions of digital language, in other words its bases rely on the digital’s discreet nature. Remanding the basic syllogism with a well know example of “All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Therefore Socrates is mortal” – it could also applied for the digital and the documentary relationship. Basically; quintessence of digital is discrete, interactive documentary is digital, Therefore quintessence of digital is discrete. It consist of small bricks that can be combine with each other  variously.

In the linear documentary making, shots are recorded then combined together on a timeline on a linear scheme. The exported documentary is one video file made up of quite a few shots. In other words, it is fixed. In contrast, interactive documentaries are designed to present video in separate files and its users can decide which elements to display in which order or have a random access. In a way user can participate the co- creation of the work as the co-author.

There are many scholars who did their research on the field of interactive documentary. One of them; Whitelaw (2002) observes that—due to the expansion of bandwidth, the development of online video and the increasing emergence of interactive documentary forms—the formation of relations between shots is altered in a multilinear structure:

“New media forms pose a fundamental challenge to the principle of narrative coherence, which is at the core of traditional documentary. If we explode and open the structure, how can we be sure that the story is being conveyed?” (Whitewall, 2002)

Gaudenzi (2013) draws attention to the evolving nature of this form of documentary within a field that is also continually changing. Gaudenzi states:

“If documentary is a fuzzy concept, digital interactive documentary is a concept yet to be clearly defined. What is implicit in its terminology is that an interactive documentary needs to use a digital support, and be interactive. A linear documentary that has been shot with digital technology, and that is distributed on the Web, is a digital documentary but not an interactive one.” (Gaudenzi,2013)

 

3d render eyeballsNash (2012) states that:

As new media technologies and new forms of communication emerge, contemporary documentary makers are engaging in a process of actively re-thinking the documentary project. They are imagining what documentary might become: non-linear, multi-media, interactive, hybrid, cross-platform, convergent, virtual, or something else as yet un-thought. Within this experimental space the webdoc has become an established mode of documentary production. (2012, p.197)

O’Flynn (2012), similar to Nash (2012) and Gaudenzi (2013), evaluates the emergence of different forms of interactive documentary across multiple digital platforms and connects this development with a transformation towards incorporating design into documentary practice. O’Flynn proposes that:

…notions of interactivity have changed over the past decade… [due to],a shift away from a binaristic ‘choose your own adventure’ orientation towards plot as an either/or structure and narrative causality to an exploration of experiential interface design. Here, i-docs of the last five years have demonstrated an increasing attention to interface and user experience design as dynamic structural elements expressive of a thematic core to the given narrative. (O’Flynn, 2012)

Game feel constitutes the new genre of documentary.

All interactive documentaries have the feel of game.

Even there is a novel genre of doc – games, which consist of the social events, mostly critical ones and the digital simulation of it. by allowing the users to participate in a scenario, the designers aim to give values and the strategic actions to their users as well as anticipate their reactions and get a data out of them. According to Dr Tim Lenoir, educators in the conflict resolution has recognised the role model simulation with the game playing. These lead major organisations like the Un and various similar organisations routinely use very sophisticated role-playing games in their classes. Learning by doing bridges the gap between the conflict resolution theory and its practical resolution in the world of crisis that requiring complex strategy, problem-solving and adapted thinking according to Dr Tim Lenoir.

Interactivity

Interactivity to mean the ability of humans to participate in actions in a representational context.

“The prefix “inter” means “between”, telling us that we are talking about an active relationship between the user and the content.  It’s two-way exchange. You do something, the content reaches to what you’ve done. or the content demands something from you, and you respond in some way.” Carolyn Handler Miller

“Interactivity exists on a continuum that could be characterised by three variables: frequency ( how often you could interact), range (how many choices were available), and significance (how much the choices really affected matters)” Laurel

The interactivity is not the sole ability to click in the digital environments. Each click gives its user to another sequence and each click end up with another destination. When the user faces with multiple possibilities, it’s the point that user performs its agency with an autonomous action. By this way, it is also possible to say that interactivity is a practice of becoming the agency. When the interactivity takes its place, it also means there are agencies in the actions. But, of course, there are levels of agency participation. For example, the easiest way to differentiate the level of agency participation considering games, thinking about the how chest based on low action but a high level of agency. The new environments of the digital, especially web base environments, involve the active process of navigation.

According to Roberto Simonovski “interactivity aims at motivating the recipient to co construct the work.”

“This encompasses several possibilities: (1) reaching the characteristic of the work (programmed interactivity: human-software), which includes first of all (but certainly not exclusively or primarily)  multilinearity in hypertexts requiring readers to make navigational decisions on their own; and (2) reaching to activities of other recipients (network bound interactivity human human via software), which includes cooperative writing projects asking all readers entering a Website to become authors of a given project. ” (Digital art and meaning, pg31)