By the advent of camera and computing, historical data; which is in symbolic order by alphabetic symbols enhances its quality with photography; which belongs to physical real. These epistemological enhancements changed the way of perception as well requirements of organisation, categorization and access of the data.
The database is a structured data for managing, processing and accessing. The ultimate goal of the database is having an organised information and retaining the comprehensiveness of recording result of the specified data. All of the media objects inherently interface of the database while some of them comprise structural construction of the database logic.
“Perhaps, “Man with a Movie Camera” is an example of a database imagination in modern media art. Man with a Movie Camera is not only a database of the city in the 1920s according to Manovich, “a database of film techniques, and a database of new operations of visual epistemology, but also a database of new interface operations that together aim to go beyond simple human navigation through physical space.” (Manovich, 2001)
But the main database is a word comes with computers. By their talent in the calculation, computers are intrinsically available for various database operations.
The computer age brought with it a new cultural algorithm: reality->media->data->database. (Monavich, 2001)
The database supports both the pure database form and the narration. One of the arguments of Manovich claims that the logic of the database replaces that of the narrative in digital media.
Much like Maravich Ernst also affirm the similar ideas that dominant model for organising information and structural tradition of Aristotle has begun to destroy with new media. By emphasising the centrality of temporality, there might be a change for the long term read only memory ROM with RAM random access memories. The archive is much more dynamic, transformative and productive in terms of history just like the organic memory, not in rest in the fixed position, always shifts with other factors. According to Ernst, there is a shift through micro-temporal approach refers to archives in motion. This transformation is not much about the human activity rather it is much about technological amelioration.
Once things are being digitalised, you can analyse every bit and this allows to investigate and navigate in them.
Data mining as a result of big data on the digital environments
Locus of copying.
“The math is simple: one byte = one typed alphabetic character. One page of text contains about 2.000characters, so one million bytes, aka one megabyte (MB) would hold about 500 pages of text data. Most books are much less than 500 pages. … If the average length of a book is 350 pages,then the whole of the Library of the Congress would fit in less space. If the average length of a book is 250 pages, it would fit on an 18 TB drive with little room to spare.”
Gutenberg Project founded in 1971 is the oldest online library.
Documentarist’s field is reality and the outside world. All kind of social contexts,and their relations might be the increments of the documentary maker. Yet, many documentary examples and documentarists are outside the boundaries of the big fiction system and outside the major film studios.
Documentarist deal with the questions like how can one organize the material within which topic or more border themes? How can one deal with the mixture of facts, dramatic power and emotionality? How the coherency achieved by which methods?
Beside these types of questions, contemporary documentarists need to be adaptive to the existence and upcoming technologies that create its own social construction and aesthetic concerns. By experiencing with the new tool kits documentary designer has to be aware of various types of languages such as graphics, computation, animation, sound, film and dialogs.
As Seth Keen puts into the words in his PhD thesis;
“Documentary practitioners require a new set of skills and knowledge to work online if they wish to practice within the dynamic and technology-driven domains of the Internet. In linear documentary making, shots are recorded then combined together on a timeline on a linear sheme. The exported documentary is one video file made up of quite a few shots. In contrast, interactive documentaries are designed to present video in separate files.”
According to the section he called as “Documentary Designer Manifesto” there are severals points that every maker has to check. These are;
- The documentary designer designs and produces interactive media across a range of digital platforms.
- They develop skills and knowledge that can be applied to a variety of contexts.
- They design tools and make content for ‘lean forward’ users.
- They give up authorial control and work as a co-creator.
- They have strategies in place to work with the ephemeral state of what is designed and produced.
- They understand that tools are not permanent and fixed, they are a means to an end that constantly change and are quickly superseded.
- They accept that technologies and ways of doing things may not be available, they will have to be created, and developing what is required involves being open to working with software, hardware and practices from other fields.
- The documentary designer has some knowledge of code to work with interaction designers and programmers.
Netvideo, Nonvideo, Newvideo 239-240 Seth Keen
Specification of the attributions are necessary for the users to understand what they are trying to accomplish.
According to Gaudenzi (2013) there are new modes for this new artistic genre. These are;
- Hypertext mode
- Conversational mode
- Participatory mode
- Experiential mode
With little notice, computer and web technologies just told us a lot about our contemporary world and its transformations. The developments have an impact on each level of human lives. Of course, As a way of narrational genre, the documentary is also affected by this revolutionary exploration.
By reflecting the logical connectives new form has the attributions of digital language, in other words its bases rely on the digital’s discreet nature. Remanding the basic syllogism with a well know example of “All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Therefore Socrates is mortal” – it could also applied for the digital and the documentary relationship. Basically; quintessence of digital is discrete, interactive documentary is digital, Therefore quintessence of digital is discrete. It consist of small bricks that can be combine with each other variously.
In the linear documentary making, shots are recorded then combined together on a timeline on a linear scheme. The exported documentary is one video file made up of quite a few shots. In other words, it is fixed. In contrast, interactive documentaries are designed to present video in separate files and its users can decide which elements to display in which order or have a random access. In a way user can participate the co- creation of the work as the co-author.
There are many scholars who did their research on the field of interactive documentary. One of them; Whitelaw (2002) observes that—due to the expansion of bandwidth, the development of online video and the increasing emergence of interactive documentary forms—the formation of relations between shots is altered in a multilinear structure:
“New media forms pose a fundamental challenge to the principle of narrative coherence, which is at the core of traditional documentary. If we explode and open the structure, how can we be sure that the story is being conveyed?” (Whitewall, 2002)
Gaudenzi (2013) draws attention to the evolving nature of this form of documentary within a field that is also continually changing. Gaudenzi states:
“If documentary is a fuzzy concept, digital interactive documentary is a concept yet to be clearly defined. What is implicit in its terminology is that an interactive documentary needs to use a digital support, and be interactive. A linear documentary that has been shot with digital technology, and that is distributed on the Web, is a digital documentary but not an interactive one.” (Gaudenzi,2013)
Nash (2012) states that:
As new media technologies and new forms of communication emerge, contemporary documentary makers are engaging in a process of actively re-thinking the documentary project. They are imagining what documentary might become: non-linear, multi-media, interactive, hybrid, cross-platform, convergent, virtual, or something else as yet un-thought. Within this experimental space the webdoc has become an established mode of documentary production. (2012, p.197)
O’Flynn (2012), similar to Nash (2012) and Gaudenzi (2013), evaluates the emergence of different forms of interactive documentary across multiple digital platforms and connects this development with a transformation towards incorporating design into documentary practice. O’Flynn proposes that:
…notions of interactivity have changed over the past decade… [due to],a shift away from a binaristic ‘choose your own adventure’ orientation towards plot as an either/or structure and narrative causality to an exploration of experiential interface design. Here, i-docs of the last five years have demonstrated an increasing attention to interface and user experience design as dynamic structural elements expressive of a thematic core to the given narrative. (O’Flynn, 2012)
Game feel constitutes the new genre of documentary.
All interactive documentaries have the feel of game.
Even there is a novel genre of doc – games, which consist of the social events, mostly critical ones and the digital simulation of it. by allowing the users to participate in a scenario, the designers aim to give values and the strategic actions to their users as well as anticipate their reactions and get a data out of them. According to Dr Tim Lenoir, educators in the conflict resolution has recognised the role model simulation with the game playing. These lead major organisations like the Un and various similar organisations routinely use very sophisticated role-playing games in their classes. Learning by doing bridges the gap between the conflict resolution theory and its practical resolution in the world of crisis that requiring complex strategy, problem-solving and adapted thinking according to Dr Tim Lenoir.