Culture of Laugher
Contemporary festivals derive from the ancient history and the philosophy of carnival which has the “notion of laughter’s therapeutic and liberating force” (Bakhtin) and also sanctioned by the highest ideal aims of human existence, not by the world of practical conditions.
Festival, as a gate which opens beyond the normative understanding of modern society, is a declaration of the utopia. Temporary existence of the festival is an attempt to enter into collective ancestral body that indicate freedom, joy and abundance in life.
Construction of the festival based on creation of alternative social space. This very artistic act of creating the alternative social space proposes the significance of the moment despite its temporality. The permanent placement losses its construction by penetration of the temporal one.
There is no strict boundary between performers and the spectators in the festival place.
Mikhail Bakhtin was one of the most important Soviet thinker and theorists of social sciences in the twentieth century. His writing embodied the qualities of the Carnival in medieval culture. According to his writing carnival retains the opposite power toward to feudal in medieval wolrd. There are four categories of Bakhtin’s carnivalistic sense of the world:
1. Free and familiar interaction between people: in the carnival normally separated people can interact and freely express themselves to one another.
2. Eccentric behavior: behavior that was otherwise unacceptable is legitimate in carnival, and human nature’s hidden sides are revealed.
3.Carnivalistic misalliances: the free and familiar attitude of the carnival enables everything which is normally separated to connect – the sacred with the profane, the new and old, the high and low etc.
4. Sacrilegious: the carnival for Bakhtin is a site of ungodliness, of blasphemy, profanity and parodies on things that are sacred.
Pierre Bourdieu – Habitus, Cultural production, field, doxa, capital; social capital, cultural capital, financial capital, and symbolic capital.
Lefebvre – Place as a social product
According to Lefebvre, space is a reason and the result at the same time for the societies and ideologies. Ideologies define the way of production that might work as an evidence of product (space.) The production of space creates other spaces. One of the hypotheses of Lefebvre “if space is a product, our knowledge of it must be expected to reproduce and expand the process of production.”
Since the consciousness only exist within the interaction it is crucial to sustain those alternative social bodies to have an polygonal structure.
Social epistomology refers to web of belief
Because computers are sensory deprived and physically limited there is new search to present computing without computers. Integrating the nanotechnology into the other tools and the environments is a popular trend of the day.
Technology transforms the unintelligent, static objects to mobile, intelligent, active forms. These artefacts are designed to record, categorise, and serve as reflecting personalised taste in return.
On the other hand, these technological artefacts are also in a relationship with each other.
Imagination is like going down the rabbit hole. By the origin of the word it is picturing, imaging oneself. It’s a great ability of the human that can connect the different points and creates new ideas, images, concepts of external objects not present to the senses.
Contemporary area, which is governed by scientific taste, creates its narrative genre called science fiction.
From Jules Verne to Star Trek, science fiction has proven to be remarkably prescient in developing new technologies and shaping attitudes towards that technology. As a reminder, a promise of the science fiction requires material, physical, rationalisation rather than a supernatural or arbitrary. Material rather than the supernatural is its key attribution. However, it is hard to differentiate the well-developed technology from the supernatural. So let’s face the music. Isaac Asimov wrote about the connected library that everyone can access, in a short story called “From The ‘London Times’ in 1904, Mark Twain predicted the internet in 1898 when telephones were still a very novel form of communication. John Brunner also wrote about the many issues related to computer technology. One of the contemporary ways of communication has already written by Jelus Verne in 1889. Talking holograms do not only appear in the Star Trek, they become to come around. There was a voice-controlled computer in 2001: A Space Odyssey. Voice control has become mainstream software like Siri on the iPhone 4S. Besides, the first aeroplane television was seen in 2001: A Space Odyssey. Now you can see it anytime you take a flight. Cyberspace was the word from the Necromancer that was written by W. Gibson. Kurtzwell had already written that intelligence machine will win the chess match in 1990 before IBM’s Deep Blue won in 1997.
The Spielberg film A.I. was based on a Brian Aldiss story, “Super-Toys Last All Summer Long”.
The question of imaginary media is: What can be imagined, and under what historical, social and political conditions? What are the conditions for the media imaginaries of the modern mind and contemporary culture, and on the other hand, how do imaginaries condition the way we see actual technologies?(Parikka, 2012, What is Media Archeology pg 47)
“Play is a core human value; even a core mammalian value.” according to Bing Gordon. “We used an analogy that lion cubs learn to hunt and fight by playing together. We asserted that interactive virtual world gaming would be a way that people could train in a bunch of different ways, socialise, and get the same kind of richness that one can get in many aspects of real life, but without the risk.”
“Play is a core human value; even a core mammalian value.” Bing Gordon.
Dutch philosopher and historian Huizinga explores the relationship between games, play, and culture and he discusses the importance of the play element of culture and society. According to Huizinga play is primary to and a necessary condition of the generation of culture and it exists in every culture.
Again according to Huizinga “The five most common experiences of game feel are:
1- The aesthetic sensation of control “with the right relationships between input and response, controlling something in a game can archive a kind of lyric beauty.”
2- The pleasure of learning, practising and mastering a skill
3- Extension of the senses
4- Extension of identity
5- Interaction with a unique physical reality within the game”
When player is given well defined task that makes player experience the game as a narrative game creates an impression in the player’s mind.
With little notice, computer and web technologies just told us a lot about our contemporary world and its transformations. The developments have an impact on each level of human lives. Of course, As a way of narrational genre, the documentary is also affected by this revolutionary exploration.
By reflecting the logical connectives new form has the attributions of digital language, in other words its bases rely on the digital’s discreet nature. Remanding the basic syllogism with a well know example of “All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Therefore Socrates is mortal” – it could also applied for the digital and the documentary relationship. Basically; quintessence of digital is discrete, interactive documentary is digital, Therefore quintessence of digital is discrete. It consist of small bricks that can be combine with each other variously.
In the linear documentary making, shots are recorded then combined together on a timeline on a linear scheme. The exported documentary is one video file made up of quite a few shots. In other words, it is fixed. In contrast, interactive documentaries are designed to present video in separate files and its users can decide which elements to display in which order or have a random access. In a way user can participate the co- creation of the work as the co-author.
There are many scholars who did their research on the field of interactive documentary. One of them; Whitelaw (2002) observes that—due to the expansion of bandwidth, the development of online video and the increasing emergence of interactive documentary forms—the formation of relations between shots is altered in a multilinear structure:
“New media forms pose a fundamental challenge to the principle of narrative coherence, which is at the core of traditional documentary. If we explode and open the structure, how can we be sure that the story is being conveyed?” (Whitewall, 2002)
Gaudenzi (2013) draws attention to the evolving nature of this form of documentary within a field that is also continually changing. Gaudenzi states:
“If documentary is a fuzzy concept, digital interactive documentary is a concept yet to be clearly defined. What is implicit in its terminology is that an interactive documentary needs to use a digital support, and be interactive. A linear documentary that has been shot with digital technology, and that is distributed on the Web, is a digital documentary but not an interactive one.” (Gaudenzi,2013)
Nash (2012) states that:
As new media technologies and new forms of communication emerge, contemporary documentary makers are engaging in a process of actively re-thinking the documentary project. They are imagining what documentary might become: non-linear, multi-media, interactive, hybrid, cross-platform, convergent, virtual, or something else as yet un-thought. Within this experimental space the webdoc has become an established mode of documentary production. (2012, p.197)
O’Flynn (2012), similar to Nash (2012) and Gaudenzi (2013), evaluates the emergence of different forms of interactive documentary across multiple digital platforms and connects this development with a transformation towards incorporating design into documentary practice. O’Flynn proposes that:
…notions of interactivity have changed over the past decade… [due to],a shift away from a binaristic ‘choose your own adventure’ orientation towards plot as an either/or structure and narrative causality to an exploration of experiential interface design. Here, i-docs of the last five years have demonstrated an increasing attention to interface and user experience design as dynamic structural elements expressive of a thematic core to the given narrative. (O’Flynn, 2012)
Game feel constitutes the new genre of documentary.
All interactive documentaries have the feel of game.
Even there is a novel genre of doc – games, which consist of the social events, mostly critical ones and the digital simulation of it. by allowing the users to participate in a scenario, the designers aim to give values and the strategic actions to their users as well as anticipate their reactions and get a data out of them. According to Dr Tim Lenoir, educators in the conflict resolution has recognised the role model simulation with the game playing. These lead major organisations like the Un and various similar organisations routinely use very sophisticated role-playing games in their classes. Learning by doing bridges the gap between the conflict resolution theory and its practical resolution in the world of crisis that requiring complex strategy, problem-solving and adapted thinking according to Dr Tim Lenoir.