Tag: programming


“Game world is a simplified subdomain of the real world.” Steve Swink

Game industry developed as the result of the military contract spin off some of their products around the 1980s. Flight simulators design their technology for the arcade games, including game council PC games muds was growing with a pace.

For example, Silicon Valley made the major products the Nintendo export for the play station and the extremely successful Super Mario series came out of that.



Imagination is like going down the rabbit hole. By the origin of the word it is picturing, imaging oneself. It’s a great ability of the human that can connect the different points and creates new ideas, images, concepts of external objects not present to the senses.

Contemporary area, which is governed by scientific taste, creates its narrative genre called science fiction.

From Jules Verne to Star Trek, science fiction has proven to be remarkably prescient in developing new technologies and shaping attitudes towards that technology. As a reminder, a promise of the science fiction requires material, physical, rationalisation rather than a supernatural or arbitrary. Material rather than the supernatural is its key attribution. However, it is hard to differentiate the well-developed technology from the supernatural. So let’s face the music. Isaac Asimov wrote about the connected library that everyone can access, in a short story called “From The ‘London Times’ in 1904, Mark Twain predicted the internet in 1898 when telephones were still a very novel form of communication. John Brunner also wrote about the many issues related to computer technology. One of the contemporary ways of communication has already written by Jelus Verne in 1889. Talking holograms do not only appear in the Star Trek, they become to come around. There was a voice-controlled computer in 2001: A Space Odyssey. Voice control has become mainstream software like Siri on the iPhone 4S. Besides, the first aeroplane television was seen in 2001: A Space Odyssey. Now you can see it anytime you take a flight. Cyberspace was the word from the Necromancer that was written by W. Gibson. Kurtzwell had already written that intelligence machine will win the chess match in 1990 before IBM’s Deep Blue won in 1997.

The Spielberg film A.I. was based on a Brian Aldiss story, “Super-Toys Last All Summer Long”.

The question of imaginary media is: What can be imagined, and under what historical, social and political conditions? What are the conditions for the media imaginaries of the modern mind and contemporary culture, and on the other hand, how do imaginaries condition the way we see actual technologies?(Parikka, 2012, What is Media Archeology pg 47)

Digital Environments

First of all, to be able to articulate digital environments,  inherent language of digital environments has to be considered. Distinctive specify of the medium is its codes. What are the digital codes basically? Digital means switching between the states of one-on-connected and zero-off-disconnected by electrical terms.  As switching between the two states means representing information as binary data, what you do is adding the digit (bit) after you couple the circle of two. The bit depth (number of bits available) determines the accuracy and quality of the quantized value. 8 bit is 1 byte. 1 byte is enough to hold 1 typed letterMathematically: n bits yields 2n patterns. Kilobyte about 1 thousand bytes, Megabyte, about 1 million bytes, Gigabyte, about 1 billion bytes, Terabyte, about 1 trillion bytes.

There is an encoding representation for each typed letter by a number, called ASCII. Within this representation each number is stored in one byte, so the number is in 0..255. For example; in ASCII Code, representation of the A is 65, a is 96.

In term of digital images, which look natural, and smooth; there are lots of little numbers behind the scenes.  According to The Newton prism that shows the “hue” dimension technically color is a 3-dimensional space, mixing lights works differently from mixing paints. This is the behind theory of how to represent the color of a pixel? The red/green/blue (RGB) scheme is one popular way of representing a color in the computer. In RGB, every color is defined as a particular combination of pure red, green, and blue light. By this means, any color can be represented by three numbers in between 0-255.

Although the background of binary turns to Chinese via Leibniz, circa 1700; any datum is controlled within the logical structure a digital circuit in, for instance, computer. After its developments through Morse key, the action was designed into the telegraph system in 1753. So perhaps telegraph is the first digital process.After establising the Transatlantic telegraph cable, the first message of telegraphy send by Queen Victoria in 1858 “Europe and America are united by telegraphy. Glory to God in the highest; on earth, peace and good will toward men, an additional link between the nations whose friendship is founded on their common interest and reciprocal esteem.” to President James Buchanan.

To be back to the point, digital acts like a language. “Language is, as it were, that which divides reality” (Barthes) Pixels are the discrete data of the digital. Sampling transform continuous data into discrete data. And then each sample is assigned a numerical value from a defined range. This process is what is called quantization. Quantisation of the data, as a process of converting a continuous range of values into a finite range of discreet values, has a capacity for a significant change in terms of calculation, determination and manipulation.

Very briefly digitalisation is converting data into a numerical representation. This implies a mathematical representation of the media as well as its algorithmic manipulation. Digitalised space is ready for the mathematical operation for the reasons of analysing, or migrating the data. This is one of the most significant pinpoints that media as a convergence point, capacity of algorithmic  variety in digital environments distort the identity of media and relevantly culture dramatically. These new systems by creating a different bunch of new gestures and behaviours intervene the daily life and create a new form of anthropocene. Following McLuhan, German new media philosophers Ernst poses that “cyberspace is not about content, but rather a transversive performance of communication. Without the permanent recycling of information, there is no need for emphatic memory.” By their dynamic nature, the new systems by acting like a living organisms intervene to daily life and their interaction is more impactful more than ever.

“Media becomes programable.” (Manovich, 2001)

“Digital environments is encyclopedic, spatial, procedural and participatory” (Murray, 2012)

Participatory instinct of digital culture is mot visible with the social media that allow even the off task people to participate by instant sharing. Social Media itself by containing the spontaneous and private behaviours, predilections, relations and intentions of people crete a vast database. “Instant sharing” function of media, which allows it meeting with its end users in an online environment while it is still performing the process, emphasise the living mechanism of the project, day by day, hour and hour. This function is a rupture from traditional communicational methods by its ability to multi directional communication and at the same time convergence of the many retroactive media. Social media is a reflection of a philosophy. Although the given data is very personal, in long term with such a grand participation, this is the media that has traits not like the other – possibly it is base the most objective and never existed data pool. By transcending the space and time, digital environments are profound implication for comtemporary daily activities of the people. Because the people’s life so much embedded to where they live, work and play; the spatiality of the digital environments crete foundational revolutionary new grounds, thus new ways of being.

In a way, modern technical media much more to do with quantities instates of qualities, which means it does not necessarily withhold the quality seekers.

There is also another bifurcation in the digital media, in-terms of data’s born places. The digitalising the media that produced out of the digital system is one thing, producing in the digital system is another.

Whereas a printed letter can carry the meaning of only one phonetic unit, one byte is open to encode 256 different textual, acoustic, or visual options.

Pan.do/ra: Open Source Video Archive

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Software based digital video archives likely to be the most prospective field. Based on the developments in the computer learning This new way, as a categorical multilinear non-narrative, has vast potential. Certainly, the aesthetic of the digital, and postmodern comes to the front.

The audio visual archive can, for the first time, be organized not just by metadata but according to proper media inherent criteria – a sonic and visual memory in its own. Contrary to traditional semantic research in the history of ideas, such an endogenic audiovisual archive will no longer list sound and image sequences exclusively according to their authors , subjects, and time and space metadata of recording. Instead, digital data banks will allow audio-visual sequences to be systematised according to genuinely signal-paramethic notions (mediation rather than narrative topoi), revealing new insights into their informative qualities and aesthetics. (Jussi Parrika, Media Archaeology as a Transatlantic Bridge)

Pan.do/ra is one of those digital video archive software, which was developed and maintained by Jan Gerber and Sebastian Lütgert at 0x2620 in Berlin and Sanjay Bhangar at CAMP in Bombay. It allows you to manage large, decentralised collections of video, to collaboratively create metadata and time-based annotations, and to serve your archive as a desktop-class web application. It is a free and open source.

The programme called Pan.do/ra consists the function of the computer having an attribution of being encyclopaedic, spatial, procedural, participatory and modular. The program involves small sufficient modules; scripts. The system allows its users find separate videos, in the form of shots and sequences and thus create a sequence out of them into different combinations. In other words, participants engage with a closed system, and access multiple clips stored in a database. The users, acting as a curator, select and assemble clips into different combinations, navigate within the database.

Programmers by sharing the program as an open source, which allows users/designers to build their own version, they give the opportunity to social context designer having a platform to digitalised, organise and frame the data easily. The software also allows users to become the creator of their own documentaries by containing the possibilities of combining different clips, as well as setting various relationships between all these by determined keywords—and it thus it develops the avant-garde idea of a documentary under the name of personal list as an abstract visual score to its logical end, and beyond. The software has the potential to bring a new level of objectivity and taste to the documentary culture. The line between archive and documentary becomes more blurred by this computer based new compositing points the next generation of narration, which puts the emphasis on behaviour, choice, and action rather than composition.

As programmers came to visit and gave lecture us into the class that I have taken from Andreas Treske, I thought “it would be the best point to use it.” Thanks to my dorm friend who is a continuing physics student we set up the programme. I started to upload videos from the festival archive each year as I have already separated and exported some of them in a right format.

The most important factor that made me experiment with the program is its usability. Usability is a buzzword for all types of software and applications. But of course what is significant as much as usability is usefulness. Traditionally, in art practice, the artists made a unique piece within a particular medium. There is no difference between the interface and the work that has done. In contemporary age, with the new media, there are new ways of collaborating while practising art. For instance, as a software, Pan.do/ra needs social context and an editor who enter the keywords to make the categorisation.

The most significant problem with the digital archive is a contingency. As a fact, digital archives can be instantaneously erased and this might be faster than any fire in the library at Alexandria. Like the all other new technologies, digital archives constantly required to keep it up to date.

System Theory and Pan.do/ra