Tag: storytelling

Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator. In 1940, he  conceptualised a digital system called the “Memex” for storing large interconnected knowledge bases, which could be accessed from various and multiple levels as a form of memory augmentation involving a microfilm-based “device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.“Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). “As We May Think”The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 20 April 2012. “As We May Think” has turned out to be a visionary and influential essay and influenced many contemporary technologies and it includes many significant ideas about the hypertext. “Associative linkage, argues Bush, replicates more accurately the way the mind works. The continuing appeal of hypertext as both information storage and creative methodology has been that it appears to offer a better model of consciousness than linear storage systems.” 20

The human operates by association. With one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in association with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain. (Bush in Mayer 1999:33)



The dramatic narrative in any medium can be experienced as a virtual reality.  But, satisfaction within the newly intensified medium is now possibly more than ever by the level of participation.

According to Murray;

“The experience of being transporatd to an elaborately simulated place is pleasurable in itself, regardless of the fantasy content. We refer to this experience as immersion. Immersion is a metaphorical term derived from the physical experience of being submerged in water.  We seek the same feeling from a physically immersive experience that we do from a plunge in the ocean or swimming pool.”

Hyperreal quality of the virtual


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  • Parikka, Jussi. What Is Media Archaeology?. n.p.: Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA : Polity Press, 2012., 2012. BILKENT UNIVERSITY’s Catalog. Web. 9 Nov. 2016.
  • Blom, Ina. Memory in Motion. Archives, Technology and the Social. Ed. Trund Lundemo and Eivind Rossaak. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 2016. Print.
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Concept of Game

“Play is a core human value; even a core mammalian value.” Bing Gordon.

Dutch philosopher and historian Huizinga explores the relationship between games, play, and culture and he  discusses the importance of the play element of culture and society. According to Huizinga  play is primary to and a necessary condition of the generation of culture and it exists in every culture.

Again according to Huizinga “The five most common experiences of game feel are:

1- The aesthetic sensation of control “with the right relationships between input and response, controlling something in a game can archive a kind of lyric beauty.”

2- The pleasure of learning, practising and mastering a skill

3- Extension of the senses

4- Extension of identity

5- Interaction with a unique physical reality within the game”



When player is given well defined task that makes player experience the game as a narrative game creates an impression in the player’s mind.


Types of Interactivity according to Miller

Six basic type of interactivity can be found in the all interactive entertainments according to Miller.

1- Stimulus – response exchange: The user inputs a stimulus and the program produces a response. This stimulus can be something as simple as clicking on an image and seeing a little animated sequence or hearing a funny sound Or the user might click on a button and receive a few paragraphs of text information.

2- Navigation:  The user can choose what to do in the extend of offering. this might be the vas 3D environment exploration or a menu offering for the several actions.

3- The user can control virtual objects. While it is widespread usage of interactivity it is not  fund in all projects.

4- The user can communicate with other characters, including bots and other human players. It’s common but not obligatory.

5- The user can send information.

– 6- The user can receive or acquire things.  The nature of the material can range from virtual to concrete, and the methods of acquiring it can range greatly as well.

Interactive Documentary

With little notice, computer and web technologies just told us a lot about our contemporary world and its transformations. The developments have an impact on each level of human lives. Of course, As a way of narrational genre, the documentary is also affected by this revolutionary exploration.

By reflecting the logical connectives new form has the attributions of digital language, in other words its bases rely on the digital’s discreet nature. Remanding the basic syllogism with a well know example of “All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Therefore Socrates is mortal” – it could also applied for the digital and the documentary relationship. Basically; quintessence of digital is discrete, interactive documentary is digital, Therefore quintessence of digital is discrete. It consist of small bricks that can be combine with each other  variously.

In the linear documentary making, shots are recorded then combined together on a timeline on a linear scheme. The exported documentary is one video file made up of quite a few shots. In other words, it is fixed. In contrast, interactive documentaries are designed to present video in separate files and its users can decide which elements to display in which order or have a random access. In a way user can participate the co- creation of the work as the co-author.

There are many scholars who did their research on the field of interactive documentary. One of them; Whitelaw (2002) observes that—due to the expansion of bandwidth, the development of online video and the increasing emergence of interactive documentary forms—the formation of relations between shots is altered in a multilinear structure:

“New media forms pose a fundamental challenge to the principle of narrative coherence, which is at the core of traditional documentary. If we explode and open the structure, how can we be sure that the story is being conveyed?” (Whitewall, 2002)

Gaudenzi (2013) draws attention to the evolving nature of this form of documentary within a field that is also continually changing. Gaudenzi states:

“If documentary is a fuzzy concept, digital interactive documentary is a concept yet to be clearly defined. What is implicit in its terminology is that an interactive documentary needs to use a digital support, and be interactive. A linear documentary that has been shot with digital technology, and that is distributed on the Web, is a digital documentary but not an interactive one.” (Gaudenzi,2013)


3d render eyeballsNash (2012) states that:

As new media technologies and new forms of communication emerge, contemporary documentary makers are engaging in a process of actively re-thinking the documentary project. They are imagining what documentary might become: non-linear, multi-media, interactive, hybrid, cross-platform, convergent, virtual, or something else as yet un-thought. Within this experimental space the webdoc has become an established mode of documentary production. (2012, p.197)

O’Flynn (2012), similar to Nash (2012) and Gaudenzi (2013), evaluates the emergence of different forms of interactive documentary across multiple digital platforms and connects this development with a transformation towards incorporating design into documentary practice. O’Flynn proposes that:

…notions of interactivity have changed over the past decade… [due to],a shift away from a binaristic ‘choose your own adventure’ orientation towards plot as an either/or structure and narrative causality to an exploration of experiential interface design. Here, i-docs of the last five years have demonstrated an increasing attention to interface and user experience design as dynamic structural elements expressive of a thematic core to the given narrative. (O’Flynn, 2012)

Game feel constitutes the new genre of documentary.

All interactive documentaries have the feel of game.

Even there is a novel genre of doc – games, which consist of the social events, mostly critical ones and the digital simulation of it. by allowing the users to participate in a scenario, the designers aim to give values and the strategic actions to their users as well as anticipate their reactions and get a data out of them. According to Dr Tim Lenoir, educators in the conflict resolution has recognised the role model simulation with the game playing. These lead major organisations like the Un and various similar organisations routinely use very sophisticated role-playing games in their classes. Learning by doing bridges the gap between the conflict resolution theory and its practical resolution in the world of crisis that requiring complex strategy, problem-solving and adapted thinking according to Dr Tim Lenoir.

Project J-Fest Doc


Interactive storytelling is the novel form of art. As Schneider (2011) proposes that documentary is in a state of flux due to the influence of ‘network conditions’ like all the forms of media. In Schneider’s argument, the objective is to reinvent documentary by responding to the ‘aesthetic potential of contemporary networked production’ (2011). Working from this argument, the objective in my research and my project is to explore possibilities outside of this acculturated approach towards linear documentary production. This demanded using the existed archive of the past 10 years and customised tools to produce an online interactive documentary.

According to Seth Keen who is a professor and the practitioner explores the ongoing requirement to respond to the development of new technologies and the redefinition of documentary practice due to the effect of those changes, paying attention to the affordances of granularity, remix, indexing and spatial montage; a better understanding of the affordances of video, computers and the network, documentary designers will be able to change their practice and improve the quality of documentaries published on the Internet.

My research method will be experimential


Documentary as a word comes from Latin docere means to teach. The documentary’s position in history has varied depending on the period and the prevailing technologies as well as the contemporary needs and social contexts. Overall, a documentary is an attempt to put forward an evidence or the testimony of a fact or situation, within the complex historical process. It is a mimetic representation of real events.

The visual documentaries have become possible by image technologies. With the advent of the camera, photograph adds an intensification to the documentary and documentary making change its methods. John Berger noted tree decade ago, the camera altered our relation to the world by their capacity of preserving the instant appearances and their possibility to break any monopoly that is represented. Photography intervenes the daily life with a number of levels, it came with its technical, material and conceptual differentiations that can not be underestimated. A video, whose value is polyvalent by its future of capturing the movements, has become to the stage as qualified documents.

By years and examples, audiovisual documentaries divided to genres by their differentiated modes. Some of them did try to focus on objectivism while the others giving emphasis to the expression of the author. Some thought documentaries are portrayed of what it is, while the others have thought documentaries as a branch of art. As Aristotle observed and puts into sentences art represents not what is, but a kind of thing that might be; environments, objects, situations, characters, and actions are represented within a wide range of deviation from real life. The degree and types of deviations are the results of the form, style and purpose representation. In any way, while documentaries as a genre involve representations of real world phenomena more than any other art forms characteristically, they also remain as a presenter of framed reality traditionally demanded on the author’s point of view.

“the tiny spark of contingency, of Here and Now, with which reality has seared the subject” (Berger, 1979)


Film is an expository medium which has a narrative mode based on the power of showing.

After quite a few examples, and years with the image technologies, discussions around the objectivity of the image have taken their place. Basically, these arguments ground on that even if you photograph the very natural life, as you are included and framed the situation, you are creating an interpretation of it by your juxtaposition of details.

Today, attributions of the documentary and the skills of the documentary makers are changing rapidly in high speed developing digital environments. Spectator turns into a user. Documentaries are taking new forms by software designers who design the new modes for users. Users are taking the proactive role more than ever in the history of documentaries. Besides, programs having the proactive role more than ever.

Keywords organisation and categorization of the systems, there are novel forms of aesthetic and the objectivity.

Interactive Documentary