Tag: video theory

Nam June Paik (1932–2006)

Our life is half natural and half technological. Half-and-half is good. You cannot deny that high-tech is progress. We need it for jobs. Yet if you make only high-tech, you make war. So we must have a strong human element to keep modesty and natural life.  Nam June Paik

Korean-born American artist Paik influence the art of video and television intensely.

TV Garden (1974)


V-yramid (1982)
Computerised One Hundred Flowers, 1998



Electronic super highway –

“Skin has become inadequate in interfacing with reality. Technology has become the body’s new membrane of existence.” —Nam June Paik


Computing without Computers

Because computers are sensory deprived and physically limited there is new search to present computing without computers. Integrating the nanotechnology into the other tools and the environments is a popular trend of the day.

Technology transforms the unintelligent, static objects to mobile, intelligent, active forms. These artefacts are designed to record, categorise, and serve as reflecting personalised taste in return.

On the other hand, these technological artefacts are also in a relationship with each other.



Imagination is like going down the rabbit hole. By the origin of the word it is picturing, imaging oneself. It’s a great ability of the human that can connect the different points and creates new ideas, images, concepts of external objects not present to the senses.

Contemporary area, which is governed by scientific taste, creates its narrative genre called science fiction.

From Jules Verne to Star Trek, science fiction has proven to be remarkably prescient in developing new technologies and shaping attitudes towards that technology. As a reminder, a promise of the science fiction requires material, physical, rationalisation rather than a supernatural or arbitrary. Material rather than the supernatural is its key attribution. However, it is hard to differentiate the well-developed technology from the supernatural. So let’s face the music. Isaac Asimov wrote about the connected library that everyone can access, in a short story called “From The ‘London Times’ in 1904, Mark Twain predicted the internet in 1898 when telephones were still a very novel form of communication. John Brunner also wrote about the many issues related to computer technology. One of the contemporary ways of communication has already written by Jelus Verne in 1889. Talking holograms do not only appear in the Star Trek, they become to come around. There was a voice-controlled computer in 2001: A Space Odyssey. Voice control has become mainstream software like Siri on the iPhone 4S. Besides, the first aeroplane television was seen in 2001: A Space Odyssey. Now you can see it anytime you take a flight. Cyberspace was the word from the Necromancer that was written by W. Gibson. Kurtzwell had already written that intelligence machine will win the chess match in 1990 before IBM’s Deep Blue won in 1997.

The Spielberg film A.I. was based on a Brian Aldiss story, “Super-Toys Last All Summer Long”.

The question of imaginary media is: What can be imagined, and under what historical, social and political conditions? What are the conditions for the media imaginaries of the modern mind and contemporary culture, and on the other hand, how do imaginaries condition the way we see actual technologies?(Parikka, 2012, What is Media Archeology pg 47)

Artificial Satellites

They are the nexus of many tasks. Weather prediction, navigation, broadcasting.

The first satellite in space was Sputnik 1 which means as a word fellow traveller was send in 1950 by Russians. After 7 years, the first biological spacecraft that called Sputnik 2 was sent by carrying a terrier female dog. By the following year, 1958, Sputnik 3 has taken its place in space as a first launched orbit. In the same year, 1958, America also started to launch the orbits. The satellite Score has become the world’s first communication satellite.

In 1960, several satellites were sent to space by Nasa. One of them was successfully acting as a passive reflector of microwave signals, communication signals were bounced off it from one point on Earth to another point. This was the satellite making the radio communication possible. Another one called Courier 1B could record messages from an earth station and rebroadcast them.

In 1962, while British and Canada sent their satellites into space, Telstar 1 has become the world’s first active communication satellite that makes the TV programs to be broadcast across the Atlantic.

In 1964, Italy became the fifth country to have artificial satellite. And following year French launched the Asterix. Also, same year first Soviet communication satellite Molniya launched.Germany sends its artificial satellite in 1969 just one year before the Japan and China.

Intelsat III counted as a significant one by enabling the live TV.

In 1974, Spain and Netherlands send the artificial satellites. Ans, which is was send by Netherlands was a space-based X-ray and ultraviolet telescope.

In 1975, India’s first artificial satellite was launch. The next year, Indonesian and 2 years later Czechoslovakian artificial satellites were launched.

“Nothing is harder to image than the past. It is imperative that all Landsat observations are archived and made available to users.”

Bound of Literature – Science fiction and Satellites 

Arthur C. Clark was the first known author who talks about artificial satellites before the satellites were sent to space. Clarke was a science writer, futurist and scuba diver. He was an avid populariser of space travel. Clarke contributed to the popularity of the idea that geostationary satellites would be ideal telecommunications relays.



According to the Video theory, which is written by Andreas Treske, media technologies require us to navigate through the world of meaning, into images that make our memories. These timeless or time thickened images change the atmosphere, take us to the ground zero feeling. “We are immersing in video atmospheres”, says Treske. Videos as forms of realness give us a new space under the different light in time. Inevitably, video becomes atmospheric. Collectively produced sphere consist of many space that mirrors the subjectivity of the user and determines the user’s interaction with society. Video spreads meaningful acts around the network, inhabited spaces, and environments. According to Treske, our imagination helps us to avoid to become dizzy and create a whole video out of the fragmented clips. Therefore, our imagination will determine our future more than ever in the history.

The beauty of video, says Treske comes from the uncontrolled and unstructured nature of it; it does not underlie a system of narrative dictatorship.

Digital Compassion with online video


Multimedia is not solely for human eyes. Undetachable loss for human eye might be detect by machines easily and might cause a salient error.

Digital Environments

First of all, to be able to articulate digital environments, an inherent language of digital environments has to be considered. Distinctive specify of the medium is its codes. What are the digital codes basically? Digital means switching between the states of one-on-connected and zero-off-disconnected by electrical terms. As switching between the two states means representing information as binary data, what you do is adding the digit ( a bit) after you couple the circle of two. The bit depth (number of bits available) determines the accuracy and quality of the quantized value. 8 bit is 1 byte. 1 byte is enough to hold 1 typed letterMathematically: n bits yields 2n patterns. Kilobyte about 1 thousand bytes, Megabyte, about 1 million bytes, Gigabyte, about 1 billion bytes, Terabyte, about 1 trillion bytes.

There is an encoding representation for each typed letter by a number, called ASCII. Within this representation, each number is stored in one byte, so the number is in 0..255. For example; in ASCII Code, representation of the A is 65, a is 96.

In term of digital images, which look natural, and smooth; there are lots of little numbers behind the scenes. According to The Newton prism that shows the “hue” dimension technically colour is a 3-dimensional space, mixing lights works differently from mixing paints. This is the behind theory of how to represent the colour of a pixel? The red/green/blue (RGB) scheme is one popular way of representing a colour on the computer. In RGB, every colour is defined as a particular combination of pure red, green, and blue light. By this means, any colour can be represented by three numbers in between 0-255.

Although the background of binary turns to Chinese via Leibniz, circa 1700; any datum is controlled within the logical structure a digital circuit in, for instance, computer. After its developments through Morse key, the action was designed into the telegraph system in 1753. So perhaps telegraph is the first digital process.After establishing the Transatlantic telegraph cable, the first message of telegraphy send by Queen Victoria in 1858 “Europe and America are united by telegraphy. Glory to God in the highest; on earth, peace and goodwill toward men, an additional link between the nations whose friendship is founded on their common interest and reciprocal esteem.” to President James Buchanan.

To be back to the point, digital acts like a language. “Language is, as it were, that which divides reality” (Barthes) Pixels are the discrete data of the digital. Sampling transform continuous data into discrete data. And then each sample is assigned a numerical value from a defined range. This process is what is called quantization. Quantisation of the data, as a process of converting a continuous range of values into a finite range of discreet values, has a capacity for a significant change in terms of calculation, determination and manipulation.

Very briefly digitalisation is converting data into a numerical representation. This implies a mathematical representation of the media as well as its algorithmic manipulation. Digitalised space is ready for the mathematical operation for the reasons of analysing, or migrating the data. This is one of the most significant pinpoints that media as a convergence point, capacity of algorithmic variety in digital environments distort the identity of media and relevantly culture dramatically. These new systems by creating a different bunch of new gestures and behaviours intervene the daily life and create a new form of Anthropocene. Following McLuhan, German new media philosophers Ernst poses that “cyberspace is not about content, but rather a transversive performance of communication. Without the permanent recycling of information, there is no need for emphatic memory.” By their dynamic nature, the new systems by acting like a living organisms intervene to daily life and their interaction is more impactful more than ever.

“Media becomes programable.” (Manovich, 2001)

“Digital environments is encyclopedic, spatial, procedural and participatory” (Murray, 2012)

The participatory instinct of digital culture is much visible with the social media that allow even the off task people to participate by instant sharing. Social Media itself by containing the spontaneous and private behaviours, predilections, relations and intentions of people create a vast database. “Instant sharing” function of media, which allows it meeting with its end users in an online environment while it is still performing the process, emphasise the living mechanism of the project, day by day, hour and hour. This function is a rupture from traditional communicational methods by its ability to multi-directional communication and at the same time convergence of the many retroactive media. Social media is a reflection of a philosophy. Although the given data is very personal, in the long term with such a grand participation, this is the media that has traits, not like the other – possibly it is base the most objective and never existed data pool. By transcending the space and time, digital environments are a profound implication for contemporary daily activities of the people. Because the people’s life so much embedded to where they live, work and play; the spatiality of the digital environments create foundational revolutionary new grounds, thus new ways of being.

In a way, modern technical media much more to do with quantities instead of qualities, which means it does not necessarily withhold the quality seekers.

There is also another bifurcation in the digital media, in terms of data’s born places. The digitalising the media that produced out of the digital system is one thing, producing in the digital system is another.

Whereas a printed letter can carry the meaning of only one phonetic unit, one byte is open to encode 256 different textual, acoustic, or visual options.


  • Treske, Andreas. Video Theory : Online Video Aesthetics Or The Afterlife Of Video. n.p.: Bielefeld : Transcript Verlag, 2015., 2015.
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Interactivity to mean the ability of humans to participate in actions in a representational context.

“The prefix “inter” means “between”, telling us that we are talking about an active relationship between the user and the content.  It’s two-way exchange. You do something, the content reaches to what you’ve done. or the content demands something from you, and you respond in some way.” Carolyn Handler Miller

“Interactivity exists on a continuum that could be characterised by three variables: frequency ( how often you could interact), range (how many choices were available), and significance (how much the choices really affected matters)” Laurel

The interactivity is not the sole ability to click in the digital environments. Each click gives its user to another sequence and each click end up with another destination. When the user faces with multiple possibilities, it’s the point that user performs its agency with an autonomous action. By this way, it is also possible to say that interactivity is a practice of becoming the agency. When the interactivity takes its place, it also means there are agencies in the actions. But, of course, there are levels of agency participation. For example, the easiest way to differentiate the level of agency participation considering games, thinking about the how chest based on low action but a high level of agency. The new environments of the digital, especially web base environments, involve the active process of navigation.

According to Roberto Simonovski “interactivity aims at motivating the recipient to co construct the work.”

“This encompasses several possibilities: (1) reaching the characteristic of the work (programmed interactivity: human-software), which includes first of all (but certainly not exclusively or primarily)  multilinearity in hypertexts requiring readers to make navigational decisions on their own; and (2) reaching to activities of other recipients (network bound interactivity human human via software), which includes cooperative writing projects asking all readers entering a Website to become authors of a given project. ” (Digital art and meaning, pg31)